Indias Battery Boom Powering the Decarbonization Journey

Team Chemical Market

18 Jun 2024

The energy storage sector is on the cusp of a significant transformation in India, driven primarily by the need to decarbonize the electricity and transport sectors. These sectors accounted for 49% of India's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2016, emphasizing the critical role of energy storage technologies in mitigating climate change. Furthermore, to achieve ambitious goals for renewable energy and net-zero emissions by 2070, the country requires a paradigm shift in energy storage solutions. Enter lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

Market Demand and Projections:

Fueled by a growing focus on decarbonization, India's LIB market is projected for explosive growth. With a CAGR of 50%, the market is expected to reach a staggering 220 GWh by 2030, a tenfold increase in just eight years. This surge is driven by national goals to increase non-fossil energy capacity, source half of electricity from renewables, and significantly reduce carbon emissions.

Technological Advancements:

LIBs are revolutionizing energy storage due to their versatility and range of chemistries. Each type offers unique advantages catering to specific applications:
  • Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LCO): High specific energy for consumer electronics.
  • Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO): Enhanced safety and stability for medical devices and EVs.
  • Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC): Versatile for energy and power needs in EVs and industrial applications.
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP): High endurance for stationary applications.
  • Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA): High specific energy for EV powertrains.
  • Lithium Titanate (LTO): High performance and safety for demanding applications.

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Building a Self-Reliant Battery Ecosystem:

To harness the full potential of LIBs, India is actively building a robust domestic ecosystem. The government's Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for Advanced Chemistry Cells (ACC) is a cornerstone initiative, incentivizing companies to establish local manufacturing facilities with a target capacity of 50 GWh. This not only reduces import dependence but also fosters job creation and technological advancements.

Several other government initiatives are propelling the growth of the LIB market in India:
  • FAME-II Scheme: Launched in 2015, focusing on electrification of public and shared transport with substantial financial support.
  • Production Linked Incentives (PLIs) for Advanced Chemistry Cells (ACC): A $2.5 billion investment to establish 50 GWh of ACC manufacturing capacity.
  • Union Budget 2023: Includes customs duty exemptions and reductions for EV and LIB manufacturing.
  • Battery Waste Management Rules (2022): Promotes environmentally responsible battery waste management.
  • Battery Swapping Policy (Draft): Aims to enhance resource efficiency and service provision for EVs.

Challenges and Future Directions:

The magic of LIBs lies in the complex interplay of various chemical elements. However, India currently relies heavily on imports for critical raw materials like lithium, cobalt, and nickel. To address this challenge, the government is pursuing a multi-pronged approach:
  • Unlocking Domestic Treasures: Incentivizing exploration and development of domestic mineral reserves.
  • Strategic Partnerships: Forging alliances with resource-rich countries to secure a stable supply chain.
  • Recycling Revolution: Investing in efficient battery recycling technologies to recover valuable materials and minimize environmental impact.

Major Players and Local Production

India's domestic ACC battery manufacturing sector growth is well supported by various government initiatives on both the supply and demand sides. The discovery of substantial lithium reserves in Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan presents a major opportunity for local lithium production, potentially meeting 80% of India's demand.

Leading industrial houses like Reliance, Ola Electric, and Rajesh Exports are actively setting up ACC manufacturing facilities, capitalizing on government incentives and contributing to a vibrant domestic production landscape.

Way Forward

India's burgeoning battery market presents a compelling opportunity for economic growth, job creation, and environmental leadership. By capitalizing on government initiatives, fostering domestic manufacturing with a focus on sustainability, and investing in cutting-edge research, India has the potential to not only meet its own energy storage needs but also emerge as a global leader in advanced battery technology, shaping a cleaner and brighter future for generations to come.


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