The dyeing and printing industry has gained prominence across the globe. The industries are vital for the world economy and provide employment to millions of men and women across the countries. The industry is on continual institutional changes due to competition and globalization. The Government has devised measures to facilitate the growth of the industry at 18% per annum. It will also take efforts to address the labor force and create new infrastructure in addition to strengthening the existing one. China, Pakistan, India and Vietnam are giants in the manufacturing of textile products and they always compete with one another. China had been dominating the entire scheme for many years. India has become the largest manufacturer and exporter of textile products and has also invested into spinning and weaving equipment second to China. China’s once booming textile and printing industry is facing tough times.
China’s market share in the global textile industry has gone down and the labour costs are rising. Consumers are making the shift towards ethical products and choosing the manufacturers that are environmentally responsible and ethical in their means of production.
Dying and printing processes are employed in the conversion of raw textile fibre into finished goods which make a huge difference to the appearance of the textile fabrics. Majority textile materials can be dyed at any stage and manufacturers prefer piece dying which allows them to stock white goods and dye them as and when there is an order. There are different types of types which are used according to the type of material and the specific requirements which need to be met.
Textile dyes are divided into acid dyes, direct or substantive dyes. Mordant dyes require the addition of chemical substances like salt to give them an affinity for the material that is being dyed. They are then applied to cellulosic fibres, silk or wool. There are sulfur dyes which produce colors but lacking brilliance. Azoic dyes are the insoluble pigments that are formed within the fibre by padding. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and are converted into soluble colorless compounds by the means of alkaline sodium hydrosulfite. There are disperse dyes which are suspensions of the finely divided pigments which are used to dye hydrophobic fibers like nylon and polyesters. Lastly, there are reactive dyes that combine with the fiber and result in excellent colorfastness.
Strong consideration is being given to the methods of dyeing wherein the water is replaced by solvents like chlorinated hydrocarbons that are used in dry cleaning. It reduces pollution and any other problems associated with the conventional methods of dyeing and finishing. It enables rapid wetting of the textiles, increased speed of dyeing and less swelling per given amount of material. Dyes are usually used in a combination to achieve a particular shade. The expected results from the dyes can only be achieved through modern dying machines that are made from stainless steel. A widely used machine is the conical pan stock machine where fibers are held in a conical vessel while the hotel dye liquor is pumped through.
The textile sector in India is considered as one of the oldest industries in the economy. The industry is one of the largest contributors to the country’s exports and has a share of 11% of the total exports. The industry is labour oriented and is one of the largest employers. There is an organized and an unorganized sector which make the industry. The unorganized sector consists of handicrafts and handloom which is operated on a small scale and the organized sector consists of spinning and apparel and garments which use modern machinery and latest techniques. The industry is closely related to agriculture and traditional of the country. It has a capacity to produce a wide range of products suitable to different market segments in and across the country. It is estimated that the industry will reach US $223 billion by 2021 and it is the second largest employer after agriculture. The industry contributes about 5% to the country’s GDP. The industry has the potential to reach US $500 billion in size. The government is promoting the industry to generate employment and to ramp up the manufacturing facilities.
Industrial digital printing uses the latest technology and machinery to produce goods on demand. Industrial digital printing could be 2D or 3D printing for functional purposes. It is different from decorative printing which occurs as a roll to roll process before a product is made. Industrial printing is a continuous process. There are various benefits of digital printing. Consumers call for a rise in the color or image complexity, the image quality and a variety of prints. Digital printing will support the demands of the customers by allowing for small production runs and improved aesthetics like an increase in the number of colors. It supports digital design and leads to a decrease in time to market. It offers a higher customer satisfaction and cost reduction.
There is a change in manufacturing industries due to consumer demands. Consumers seek high transparency in goods and services that are used to manufacture their products and they seek a wide variety in products which are delivered to them with lightning speed. The development of digital textile printing has increased opportunities in the US job growth and has created new markets. Notable research is being conducted on printed electronics in flexible circuitry. It would support consumer products for wearables like health monitoring products and self cleaning products. Conductive digital printing will improve the manufacturing ability of the unit.
Digital printing has also made mass customization possible and it gives a competitive advantage to the companies who wish to manufacture closer to the point of sale. Since the print designs are stored in a digital format, they can be printed on demand and will ensure that the products are closer to the consumer.
The future of the industry looks promising with regard to both strong domestic consumption as well increasing export demand. With a rise in disposable income, the sector has experienced rapid growth in the past decade.